Research is strongly linked to the different spearheads of the road map, and identified solutions may also be research-driven (e.g. goal: studying behaviour and supporting preferred behavioural models as part of food waste solutions). A higher-level goal for the development of research is that Finland is profiled as an internationally high-quality country in food waste research. In Finland, food waste research and monitoring will remain of a high standard if new research and development projects are launched, and national and international cooperation between food chain operators, researchers and other specialists continues.

The amount and causes of food waste must be monitored so that it can be seen how the food waste solutions continued/suitable for further development as proposed in the road map and new food waste solutions succeed. Food waste monitoring is also related to the EU’s requirement to monitor food waste (food waste and edible food waste), according to which Finland must report food waste accurately every four years and roughly every year. Monitoring requires the construction and deployment of a monitoring system for food waste. Luke has prepared a framework for the food waste monitoring system (Figure 1) and more detailed chain stage-specific measures for monitoring (Table 1). In the future, monitoring must be developed further.

Figure 1. Description of the food waste monitoring system. 

Table 1. Methods and sample sizes for monitoring food waste and edible food waste in Finland.